• May 19, 2022
    8:30 am - 4:30 pm
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Benjamin Zand will Present “Outside Forces on Buried Pipelines” on May 19, 2022

This class has met the minimum and is continuing to accept registrations.

Course Objective

The objective of this course is to provide pipeline operators with simple, conservative approaches for the initial evaluation of the effects of outside forces on their pipelines. The focus is on stress analysis that can be implemented in spreadsheets and other readily available software. Topics covered include how to develop an approach, preliminary data gathering, how to determine the appropriate stress limits, existing stresses in pipelines and determining stresses from outside forces. The outside forces covered include surface loads, spans, exposed stream crossings, blasting and construction vibrations. The course will end with a brief discussion of the analytic tools that are available. Attendees will be given a list of available free analysis software and references for further study.

Course Outline

Overview of Pipe Stress Analysis

  • Data requirement
  • Understanding the problem
  • Strategies
  • Knowing your limits

Determining Acceptable Stress/Strain Levels

A. Stress based approach
B. Outline of strain based approach

  • Testing requirements
  • Outline of analytic approach

C. API 579

Review of Existing Stresses on Pipelines

  • Hoop stress and longitudinal stresses

Surface Loads

  • Review of general approach to surface loading (CEPA approach)


  • Simple spans
  • Multiple spans

Exposed Stream Crossings

  • Drag and lift forces
  • Vibrations


  • Background and overview
  • Scaled distance
  • Close in (i.e. parallel construction)
  • Quarry blasting

Construction vibrations

  • Types of equipment
  • Estimating vibration levels
  • Estimating stress from vibrations

Tools for analysis

  • Spreadsheets
  • Technical Toolbox
  • Mathcad
  • Finite Element Analysis

—-List of must have books and free information from the internet

PDHs Available
8 PDHs available with Certificate of Completion

Course Notes
Certificate of completion


“Phenomenal training. Thank you!”
“Benjamin did a good job at the end of sections to pause and summarize the relationship between the preceding slides/concepts.”
“He did a good job of presenting the material without getting so technical that it was hard to follow but still having it be useful.  Also, I appreciated that he was able to keep it interesting enough that it held my attention for a full day worth of training.”
“Very knowledgeable and easy to follow.”
“Good presentation. Very thorough.”
“Appreciate the insight into the theory behind the outside forces covered with the practical application.”
“Very professional, thank you.”
“Scope was well thought out. This scope fits the needs/expectations of the course for me.”
“Excellent knowledge and real-life scenarios.”
“Great info and very applicable.”
“Q&A in presentation was great.”
“Excellent presentation of equations involved and work examples provided.”
“Great job connecting all of the information. Very well presented and clear to understand.”
“Awesome training. Very helpful information on the effects of loads on the pipeline.”
“Very informative. Glad to have taken the course.”
“instructor was clear and knew his subject.”
“Very knowledgeable.”

Instructor Bio:
Dr. Benjamin Zand, Principal Engineer, RSI Pipeline Solutions

Dr Zand has 20 years of experience in geotechnical engineering, geohazard assessment, stress analysis, pipeline integrity assessment, mechanics of composite material, and mathematical modeling. His experience includes stress and vibration analysis and monitoring for oil and gas transport pipelines and facility piping. Dr Zand has assisted pipeline operators with geohazard problems such as longwall mining subsidence, ground movement, sinkhole, earthquake and fault crossing. Dr Zand has developed mitigation and monitoring programs for pipelines subjected to various geohazard conditions. He has assessed numerous pipelines subjected to vibration and cyclic loading from blast and construction. He previously worked with Kiefner & Associates, Inc. (2012 to 2019)  and joined RSI Pipeline Solutions, LLC in June, 2019. He has served as an instructor for Rock Mechanics course at the Ohio State University.

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